and REIS. p. 8, 74 ff.

a-mat-su(e-ne-em) e-liš ina ni-kil-pi-ša ma-a-ú-šam-ra-a-mat-su(e-ne-em) šap-liš ina a-la-ki-ša ma-a-i-sa-ap-pa-al

His word above, as it passes by, smites the land with sickness, 5

His word below, as it marches on, destroys the land; and Reis. p. 8, 60 ff. (= REIS. p. 4, 18-21):

a-inat-su(e-ne-em) rab-bi-ina a-la-ki-ša ma-a-ta ú-ab-bat
a-mat-su(e-ne-em) ra-bi-ina a-la-ki-ša bîtâti(pl) ú-hat-tu:

ma-a-ta ú-šap-kat* [
10 and note also Reis. p. 149 (at bottom):

Marduk) šap-liš i-ķab-bi-ma šap-liš i-nar-ru-(ut
ša be-lum a-mat-su ana-ku ana ma-ru--ti ša at-ta-šab [

] below he speaks, below he trembles

I am the word of the lord, which am set for evil. 15 Reis. No. 2, of which this last is a fragment, is addressed to Bel and

has no more to do with Ištar than other Bel hymns. Who the speaker is cannot be learned from the tablet.

Two texts which are important for their bearing on the relation 20 of Ištar to the amâtu (word) of Bel are Reis. No. 56 (pp. 105--9)

and IV R. 26, 4. These, unfortunately broken, texts are for the most part duplicates with the difference that the one in REISNER is put in the mouth of Ištar. With these compare K. 257, (ASKT 126 ff.).

REIS. p. 106, 64 ff. reads, (Ištar says): 25 64 (mu-uš)]-mu an-ta ni ÍL

65 ci-mu-ú-a ina ša-me-l pu-luhs-tum
66 me-lam-mu tur-ra ku-mu ni-lb-nel
67 me-lam-mu-ú-a ina ap-si-im nu-ni [
68 me-e e-ne-em azag-mu sa-par gal ZUG-LİL-LÁ [
69 ia-u a-wa**-tim el-li-tum sa-pa-ru ra-bu-ú ša ana și-ir sil

sa-par mah ZUG-LÍL-LÁ-šu

sa-pa-ru și-ru ša ana |
72 I-NE-TE-EN tur-ra HA nu (

ina i-ta-ni ša și-ih-hi-ru-tim
74 ab-ba ù-UM-MI-LĂ

75 ina ti-amtu ú-šar-ma
76 sug-ra Ù-UM-MI-LÁ sug
77 ana șu-și-e ú-šar-ma (
78 A-MI-A (A-ȚUR)-UD-KIB-NUN-KI-ka |
79 ana a-gi-i Pu-rat-tim


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* Kat(?) left out by REISNER in p. 8, 63; but see p. 4, 21. The same ideogram REIS. 55, 12 = HEX III, and p. 14, 15

. ** In the duplicate a-mat-ka.




80 e-ne-em GAŠAN-an-na-ka
81 a-mat kad-šú-ti* [
82 GAŠAN-GUB e kur-ra [
83 be-li-ku** ana ê-kúr
84 (dimmer)] MU-UL-LİL-LĂ-ta [
85 is-tu-ú bît EN-LİL

86 GAŠAN-GUB e) kur-ra [

87 be-li-ku ana ê-kúr [
that is, My appearance in heaven, my fear [

My glory in the ocean the fishes
Who lets the bright word, the great net dwell

in the desert of the storm:***

the exalted net in the desert [ ]?
Out of the small meshest no fish escapes.[
In the ocean it sets itselfth [
In the marsh it sets itself it i
In the stream of the Euphrates |
The word of

Mistress am I, to Ekur [
From the house of Bel !

Mistress am I, to Ekur
Note also l. 47/48: sin-niš-tum mu-di-a-at a-wa- tim ana-ku,

that is, The woman that knows the word, am I. IV R. 26, No. 4 reads:

1 ba-ra-SUB 1 ina pi-rit(?) iti pu-ri-di-ka

man-nu ip-pa-ra--šid 3 e-ne-em-zu sa-par mah

an-ki-ta sa mu-un-LÁ 4 a-mat-ka sa-pár-ra și-i-ru sa ana šamé(e) u irșitim(tim) tar-şa-at 5 a-ab-ba UM-MI-LÁ

ab ši HU-LUH-HA 6 ina tam-ti ú-šar-ma

tam-tum ši gal-ta-at






30 IO

** Bêliku

* Kad-šú-ti properly masc. pl. to kadištu (kadištu?); GAŠAN-an-da (il)Ištar Reis. 99, 40/41; p. 109, 57/58; cf. K. 2004, Rev. 22 ff. and note Reis. 106, 53: harim. tam tai tan anaka.

Mistress am I, often in K. 257 (ASKT 126 ff.). For the elision of the feminine ending note also Reis. p. 106, 39/40 (nu)-AA-GUB si-in-ni-ša-ku; cf. HWB 163a; bi-la-ku 'ein Herr bin ich'

*** ASKT 128, 7/8 be-li-ku sa-par(?)-ra și-i-ri ina și-e-ri za-ki-ki šur-bu-sa-at ana-ku Mistress am I who lets the exalted net lie in the desert of the storm.

Cf. IV R. 26, 24/25a ina itanniša ([ ] NE-TE-EN-bi-ta) nûnu ul uşși; cf. HWB 1586. Itâni ša șihhirûtim small meshes (?).

** Or I set myself is possible.

+11 Or pi-it HWB 538b; for a discussion of birit-puridi see KB VI, 508; [cf. above, p. 334.

P. H.)


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| ib-BI

7 sug-ga UM-MI-LÁ

sug-ga SE-a-an-DU
8 ana șu-și-e ú-šar-ma

șu-zu-u i-dam-mu-um
ana a-gi-e Pu-rat-ti

ú-šar-ma II e-ne-em (dimmer) ŠILIG-LU-ŠAR

a-sur-bi ab-LÚ-LÚ a-mat (il)Marduk

a-sur-ra-ak-ku i-dal-la-ah 13 umun za-e mah me-en

a-ba ge-a-DA-DI 14 be-lum at-ta și-rat

man-nu i-ša-an-na-an-ka that is, From the opening of thy legs(?) who can escape?

Thy word is an exalted net that stretches over heaven and earth.
In the ocean it sets itself, and the ocean is affrighted.
In the marsh it sets itself, and the marsh weeps.
In the stream of the Euphrates it sets itself

The word of Marduk disturbs the river bed. ** 15

Lord, thou art exalted! who is thy peer? Another noticeable passage is REIS. p. 97, 7475:

an-ta A-NUN-A KA NE [

e-liš ar-da-tum a-mat i-kab-bi i. e., Above the maid speaks the word. 20 Though the same word (amâtu) may not be meant, note also ASKT 127, 34: a-mat ki-bi-ti-ia șir-tum mat nu-{kur?]-tum ķa-tum ú-ab-bat.

In several passages Ištar is apparently identified with the storm. REIS. p. 105, 20 ff.

i-ne me-ka gub-ba-mul 25 ina pa-an ta-ha-si ina u-su-sus-si-ia***


a-bu-bu ša e-mu-ķa-a-šu ša-ka-a u(?) ma (ana-kut that is, In my standing in front of the battle

A storm (flood?) whose strength is mighty . . . . . am I. 30 REIS. 109, 77 ff. Ištar says:

HU (dimmer)IM-DUGUD-++-HU-DIM e im-MAL-a-an í

is-șu-ra (il)sa-atti ina bîti u-ša-ab ib(?) [
na-am-US-KU na-am-BUR-ra LUB-DUB-ta mu-ra-an-gub

ka-lu-ú ab-ru-tum*4 ina ti-gi-i is-sa-as-su-ni 35 that is, I, the storm-bird, dwell in the house

The priest has appointed me a nest in [

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Sur instead of ša; HWB mb. ** Cf. HWB unb and ASKT 126, 25/26: attalhu ul izákî, The water which I (Ištar) have disturbed, is not pure.

*** For this ending see 1. 25/26, also Reis. p. 155 (No 56) 8/9. [For uzuzu nuzzuzu see above p. 471, 1. 37 P. H.] ☆ See l. 31/32.

REISNER reads MI. 11 Cf. Reis. p. 38, 26; p. 107, 9/10. * A feminine form of abru (HWB 10b). Beiträge zur semit, Sprachwissenschaft. V.


It is possible here to regard DIM as equivalent to kîma, and so the whole as a comparison; still compare (il)IM-DUGUD-HU-DA = Zủ

HWB 2519

KING, Tablets of Creation, Vol. I, p. 228/9, 1. 37 reads: a-ku-ku-u-tum ša ana ai-bi nap-hat ša-ki-na-at sul-lu-uk-ti ik-du-ti; and translates: 5 O whirlwind, that roarest * against the foe and cuttest off the mighty.

For the translation 'whirlwind he appeals to II R. 39; K. 2057, Obv., Col. II, 1. 5 where akukut(um and ašamšutum form one section. And finally** the much disputed passage, REIS. P. 98, 15/16 (= Sm. 10 954, also published AL3, pp. 134–6) ûmu(mu) (ud-da) ar-da-tum ú-su-um šamêle)

o maid, ornament of heaven. Preceding this, Ištar is called barbaru and nêšu.

O storm,***

In brief then the matter seems to stand thus: Bel-Marduk is the 15 god 'exalted over all;t at times he becomes angry and punishes or brings misfortune upon his people. This he does by means of his mighty word (amâtu). By the Babylonians this sword' was personified, became an individual thing, it even speaks in the first person in one hymn. The misfortune moreover is caused often by some 20 sort of storm or flood (ůmu, abûbu, mehủ, butuştu, &c.). This was classed with the 'word,' and even identified with it. The 'word is the 'storm. And also because Bel is the author of the storm is he identified with it. — Beside this male deity Bel stood the female Ištar. She is his daughter, tt perhaps his wife, itt and in a certain sense 25

* The meaning roarest' for naphat can hardly be right. Napâhu as an intran. sitive generally means “fame up.' Reis. p. 104, 29 30 throws some light on it: (Ištaritum) ina i-ša-a-tum na-pi-ih-tim ša el mat nu-kur-ti i-sa-an-nu-nu ana-ku; that is, The goddess who rains with blazing fire upon the hostile land am I. The description would suit a thunderstorm.

** Possibly Reis, P. 115, 24/25 belongs here: sin-niš-tum šag-gúm.ma (Daw) irși. tim -na-[

*** BANKS translates: Willkommen(?) Jungfrau. JASTROW: Rel. of Bab, and Assyria, p. 310: a destructive handmaid. JEREMIAS (ROSCHER's Lexicon, II, p. 815): 0 Licht! O Magd. JENSEN, Kosmol., p. 489 (cf. also KB VI, 310. 561) translates: 0 Tag, 0 Mädchen.

† Cf. the beautiful line Reis. p. 45, 27/28: inuma šamê u irșitim balů atta šarri, When heaven and earth are not, thou art king (Cf. Ps. go, 2).

it E. g. Reis. p. 101, 7–9; ASKT 126, 14 ff.; 128, 71–74, where she is called daughter of Bel and also of Sin.

Hit Rassam Cyl., Col. VIII, 1. 92, where she is the wife of Bel; and Cyl. B, Col. V, l. 17, where she is his daughter. Cited by JASTROW (Rel. of Bab, and Assyr., p. 205, note 3) who thinks there is an error in the text.


identical with him. It is committed to her to put the 'word into execution, to direct the 'storm. She is never called 'the word of Bel, but a play on the words amtu (maid) and amâtu (word) suggests this. On the other hand she is, like Bel, identified with the storm.

It is not my intention here to discuss the Babylonian religion. I do not think that what I have just written is proved. But the passages I have cited do suggest this interpretation; and it may be of service in the further study of these texts. One thing must be

carefully examined: how much of these hymns is purely figurative, 10 and how much is a statement of the real belief of the Babylonians.

This, with the problems whether all the divine names refer to one god and one goddess; how much the hymns have changed in the course of centuries, and why, are questions which must all be in

vestigated in connection with the political and religious development 15 of the country, before we can come to any firm conclusion concern

ing the Babylonian religion.

Motes on fragment a. L. 1/2 ša = mu-lu. The hymns or paragraphs in the REISNER collection often begin with ša, 1. g. p. I, margin (cf. Reis. p. 150, 20 above, with p. 6, above) ša ki-ma ümu(mu) šur-šú-du ki-rib-ša la

a-te-e;** p. 2, 39: ša ša-di-i a-mat-su (cf. 11. 40–48); P. II, 2: ša (il) A-nim kab-tu ša-kas-tu a-mat-su); p. 16, 617 ša be-li a-mat-su; also p. 17, Rev. 3; p. 18, 2. 4; P. 30, 16. 18; p. 130, 2: ša be-lum su-pur-šu

mar-și-i-dam-mu-um. In none of these places is ša represented 25 in the Sumerian.***

What its force is in our line is doubtful. The Sumerian mu-lu favors the interpretation 'which is cry.' șirhi sart frequently in these tablets, also DUB(DI) șirhu: pp. 80, 17/18; 110, 31/32; 128, 21/22. It appears always to denote a cry of woe from mankind. When the howling of the storm is meant we

* See the remarkable passage ASKT 126, 20 ff.
țu-mu ? SAG-gi (dimmer) MU-UL-LIL-ÁL

mar-tum a-sa-rit-ti ša (il ditto ana-ku
(dimmer)EN - LIL-LA GUB (dimmer)NIN-LÍL-LÁ

(il) EN - LIL ana-ku ša (il)NIN-LÍL

(il)EN- LÍL-ku) u (il)NIN-LİL that is, Chief daughter of Mullil am I.

Bel (lord) am I of Ninlil (mistress).

or: Bel (lord) am I and Ninlil (mistress). ** Read la a-te-e, not la-a tahe-e (BANKS).

*** REIS. P. I, margin is only Semitic. On p. 7, 1/2 however is the Sumerian equivalent given by REISNER.

VIROLLEAUD, Prem. Suppl. No. 4333.

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