It is possible here to regard DIM as equivalent to kîma, and so the whole as a comparison; still compare (il)IM-DUGUD-HU-DA = HWB 251a.

KING, Tablets of Creation, Vol. I, p. 228/9, 1. 37 reads: a-ku-ku-u-tum ša ana ai-bi nap-hat ša-ki-na-at sul-lu-uk-ti ik-du-ti; and translates: 5 ( whirlwind, that roarest * against the foe and cuttest off the mighty.

For the translation 'whirlwind he appeals to II R. 39; K. 2057, Obv., Col. II, 1. 5 where akukut(um and ašamšutum form one section. And finally ** the much disputed passage, REIS. p. 98, 15/16 (= Sm. 10 954, also published AL3, pp. 134–6)

ûmu(mu) (ud-da) ar-da-tum ú-su-um šamêle)
O storm,*** o maid, ornament of heaven.

In brief then the matter seems to stand thus: Bel-Marduk is the 15 god 'exalted over all'; † at times he becomes angry and punishes or brings misfortune upon his people. This he does by means of his mighty word (amatu). By the Babylonians this ‘word' was personified, became an individual thing, it even speaks in the first person in one hymn. The misfortune moreover is caused often by some 20 sort of storm or food (ûmu, abûbu, mehủ, butuştu, &c.). This was classed with the 'word,' and even identified with it. The 'word' is the 'storm. And also because Bel is the author of the storm is he identified with it. — Beside this male deity Bel stood the female Ištar. She is his daughter,ft perhaps his wife,iti and in a certain sense 25

* The meaning roarest' for naphat can hardly be right. Napâhu as an intransitive generally means “fame up.' REIS. P. 104, 29 30 throws some light on it: (Ištaritum) ina i-ša-a-tum na-pi-ih-tim ša el mat nu-kur-ti i-sa-an-nu-nu ana-ku; that is, The goddess who rains with blazing fire upon the hostile land am I. The description would suit a thunderstorm.

** Possibly Reis, P. 115, 24/25 belongs here: sin-niš-tum šag-gúm.ma (baw) irși. tim ú-na-[

*** BANKS translates: Willkommen(?) Jungfrau. JASTROW: Rel. of Bab, and Assyria, p. 310: a destructive handmaid. JEREMIAS (Roscher's Lexicon, II, p. 815): O Licht! O Magd. JENSEN, Kosmol., p. 489 (cf. also KB VI, 310. 561) translates: 0 Tag, 0 Mädchen.

| C. the beautiful line REIS. p. 45, 27/28: inma jama 14 irsitim bai atta karri, When heaven and earth are not, thou art king (Cf. Ps. 90, 2).

#1 E. g. Reis. p. 101, 7–9; ASKT 126, 14 ff.; 128, 7174, where she is called daughter of Bel and also of Sin.

iti Rassam Cyl., Col. VIII, 1. 92, where she is the wife of Bel; and Cyl. B, Col. V, 1. 17, where she is his daughter. Cited by JASTROW (Rel. of Bab, and Assyr., p. 205, note 3) who thinks there is an error in the text.

identical with him.* It is committed to her to put the 'word into execution, to direct the 'storm. She is never called 'the word of Bel,' but a play on the words amtu (maid) and amâtu (word) suggests this.

On the other hand she is, like Bel, identified with the storm. 5. It is not my intention here to discuss the Babylonian religion.

I do not think that what I have just written is proved. But the passages I have cited do suggest this interpretation; and it may be of service in the further study of these texts. One thing must be

carefully examined: how much of these hymns is purely figurative, 10 and how much is a statement of the real belief of the Babylonians.

This, with the problems whether all the divine names refer to one god and one goddess; how much the hymns have changed in the course of centuries, and why, are questions which must all be in

vestigated in connection with the political and religious development 15 of the country, before we can come to any firm conclusion concern

ing the Babylonian religion.

Notes on Fragment a. L. 1/2 ša = mu-lu. The hymns or paragraphs in the REISNER collection often begin with ša, l. g. p. 1, margin (cf. Reis. p. 150, 20 above, with p. 6, above) ša ki-ma ümu(mu) šur-šú-du ki-rib-ša la

a-te-e;** p. 2, 39: ša ša-di-i a-mat-su (cf. 11. 40–48); p. II, 2: ša (il) A-nim kab-tu ša-kas-tu a-mat-su); p. 16, 617 ša be-li a-mat-su; also p. 17, Rev. 3; p. 18, 2. 4; p. 30, 16. 18; p. 130, 2: ša be-lum su-pur-šu

mar-și-i-dam-mu-um. In none of these places is ša represented 25 in the Sumerian.*** What its force is in our line is doubtful. The

Sumerian mu-lu favors the interpretation 'which is cry.' – șirhi = sarf frequently in these tablets, also DUB(DI) = șirhu: pp. 80, 17/18; 110, 31/32; 128, 21/22. It appears always to denote a cry of woe from mankind. When the howling of the storm is meant we

--- -
* See the remarkable passage ASKT 126, 20 ff.
țu-mu ? SAG-gi (dimmer)MU-UL-LÍL-ÁL

mar-tum a.ša-rit-ti ša (il ditto ana-ku
(dimmer)EN - LIL-LA GUB (dimmer)NIN-LIL-LÁ

(il) EN - LIL ana-ku ša (il)NIN-LİL

(il)EN - LÍL-ku) u (il)NIN-LİL that is, Chief daughter of Mullil am I.

Bel (lord) am I of Ninlil (mistress).

or: Bel (lord) am I and Ninlil (mistress). ** Read la a-te-e, not la-a tahe-e (BANKS).

*** REIS. P. I, margin is only Semitic. On p. 7, 1/2 however is the Sumerian equivalent given by REISNER.

VIROLLEAUD, Prem. Suppl. No. 4333.

have šagâmu, e. g. p. 39, 4; p. 27, 35; šasů: p. 38, 10; nâru(?): p. 39, 21 ff. – MI-MI, i. e. gig-gig (DEL. AL4 109, 135). The Semitic trans

doubtless: gig-gig = marâșu (p. 8, 72/73; cf. p. II, 14; p. 8, 74/75; p. 75, 8 ff.) and marâšu (e. g. p. 17, 2/3; p. 18, 3/4; p. 119, Rev. 20/21). 5 On account of the parallelism (p. 8, 73) I have used marâșu. minišun = munnišu from enêšu.

L. 3/4 šû ûmu either 'he the storm' or 'the self-same storm.' For šů = 'selfsame' see Ham. Laws, Obv. Col. IV, 29. inasah restored from REIS. p. 9, 102/103; p. 95, 21/22. For the meaning see 10 also REIS. p. 73, 15/16. This line occurs frequently in the REISNER collection.

L. 5/6 bul pu)-ri-e = GI - LÍL-MA-MAH; cf. REIS. p. 7, 24/25: bu(pu)-ri-e = GI-LİL-MAH; also pp. 17, 19/20; 16, 19; 25, 27; 32, 50. It is always used in the same connection and never written with MÁ 15 in the REISNER collection. GI is the preformative (= kanû 'reed') and MÁ (= elippu ‘ship') suggests the reeds used in building boats, A similar idea is found in Reis. p. 9, 121/2. Perhaps it is the same word as the Talmudic X792, a weed growing on uncultivated land, thorn, thistle. – SU-BA-MI-NI-ÍB-GUR-RI (restored from REIS. P. I, 21 20 = p. 7, 24/25;* 16, 19 et al.) = ukappar (6?) must have the meaning 'destroy, kill. See Reis. p. 18, 32/33 (cf. p. 16, 24):


mi-e-si rab-bu-ti u-kap-par and Reis. p. 55, 13/14: ki-ma me-e-su i-na-sa-ah.

For l. 7/8 cf. Reis. 7, 26/27 (=p. 1, 23/24) and p. 21, 24/25. — ippara = GI-LI, another form of appara, šuklu (ķ?), in our text = MAS-PU, also in REIS. p. 25, 28; p. 73, Obv. 3/4 (cf. p. 17, Obv. 21); but also AN-BUL REIS. P. I, 26/27 (= p. 7, 26/27) where it is not clear, and p. 16, 20 (cf. p. 21, 24). The meaning is unknown, but zo note Reis. p. 73, Obv. I ff.

na--pan-tum ina mâtâti(pl) -te-bi-'i
ap-pa-ri ina šuk-li-šu ub-bi-il
e-bu-ru ina i-šin-ni-šu ú-ta-ab-bi
bîta ina rik-si-šu ul-te-mit

35 ala ina du-ru--ši-šu ul-te-ni-il that is, He has sent oppression on the lands:

The meadow in(with) its ... has he flooded, **


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* On p. 7, 24 REISNER has omitted MI. On p. 1, 21 he reads SU-BA, but on p. 16, 19; 32, 50: ŠÚ-MA.

** For abâlu in this sense see Ham. Law, Obv. Col. XV, 15. 36; Reis. p. 27, 16/17; p. 63, 27.

The harvest in its season* has he submerged,
The house with its joints has he killed,

The town with its foundation has he overthrown. According to this parallelism Šuklu must pertain to the meadow. 5. L. 9/10. Similar lines are common in REIS. e. g. p. 15, 7; p. 21,

30/31. butuştu in REIS. = A-HUL p. 15, 7; A-MAH-(A-AN) p. 25, 31; 21, 30/31; 18, 30/31; 77, 5/6; 16, 23. BR. 11382 butuştu = A-TAR. We must then look for butuştum šurdûtum probably in NAG-TAR

MAH-A-AN. makûra (mašûra also possible) = A-A. Under A-A 10 is E-A written small. One might regard this as a gloss or reader's

sign (cf. REIS. Vorw. XVI) such as occur in REIS. But E is never found among these, and it is rather an explanatory gloss to A-A, the translation of which is bitâti. -bal I cannot explain. —

L. 11/12 (= REIS. p. 127, 21). For the meaning of the whole line 15 cf. Reis. p. 7, 30/31: Ša be-lum a-mat-su mi-lum te-bu-ú ša ap-pa i-

ša-šu [ ] (=al-UR-RI) that is, The word of the lord is the approaching flood that makes the countenance sad; cf. also REIS. p. 21, 29/30; 18, 29/30; 32, 53. – še-en-ni = (eru ŠIN) I do not know; cf.

V R. 37, 33 e (BR. 254): (eru)ŠIN-ÁŠ(?) = šin-nu. The same word 20 is found in REIS. p. 14, 9/10: ma-ri ša ina(na) ** še-en-ni (eru ŠIN

GAM) el-lu ir-mu-[ku(ELTEG); that is, The child who has poured out of(int) the bright sennu. li-pa-a = UZU-ZAL-LU, not b as MEISSNER, Suppl. p. 125 and ZIMMERN, Šurpu, p. 172 (57, 11); cf.

CRAIG, Rel. Texts, II, p. II, Obv. 12/13. TALLQUIST has shown 25 (Maşlû, p. 119) that this word means 'honey, wax, tallow or some

thing similar, and the translation ‘tallow' is now quite common. In our text this meaning is impossible. It is noticeable also that in the incantations the preformative UZU is not found. In our text and

IIR. 49, 53 it is fully written UZU-ZAL-LU. I would suggest that we 30 have in this word two meanings, which are related: (1) bowels' or a

part of them, and then the 'tallow or similar substance made from them, which could be molded; – (2) the derived meaning 'feeling' as in our passage. A similar transition is known for karšu, libbu,

rêmu, &c. The arab. äe 'flesh without bones' may be connected 35 with it.

L. 13. The two signs before BUL are not clear. Most probably we should read RÙ-e; a-an RÙ-E will be parallel to a-an-ma-gin (=ina alâki) and can mean ina banî 'in his building, doing– BULBUL in the REIS. texts = wanw. BANKS translates ‘wehen. I do not know how he comes to this rendering, but Reis. p. 115, 22 ff. leads to the same result:

* ;-šin-ni-šu = PA-SE-bi; cf. Reis. p. 10, 159/160: si-ma-ni-šu – PA-SE-ba, Perhaps suggestive of a harvest feast.

** Na is either a scribal error or phonetic complement,

i-ša-as-si-ma šamê(e) ú-ra-ab-bi
sin-niš-tum * šag-gúm-ma irșitim(tim) ú-na-

The woman howls, and the earth shakes. Here ú-na-(= BUL-BUL). In our passage BUL-BUL appears to be an infinitive (noun) and in-AG (perhaps = epêšu) the finite verb.

L. 14/15. VATh 410 begins at this line. — KÚ probably = akâlu, as frequently in REIS. – A similar line is Reis. p. 149, 29/30; 10 see also REIS. P. 27, 20/21. idibbubu apparently = ZU-DIB-KU; cf. Reis. p. 127, 22: SU-DIB-KU-NI.

L. 16/17 = Reis. p. 127, 23. — naphar = DUL-DUL-DA, all doubtful. The same ideogram and translation Reis. p. 7, 3637; 18, 34/35, et al. Cf. note on l. 18. 19. — For kám (in i-kám-mar) note kan l. 19. 15

L. 18/19. 20 = VATh 410, 4/5. 6 (REIS. P. III) where we read: [ ] UR-NA SÚ-BA al []=[ ] har ana bi-šu-a-tu -ta-na pan-na [ ]. The signs however are not clear. REIS. 127, 24 will also be a duplicate, 9. v. for the ending NA (DUL-DUL-DA-NA). Similar lines are Reis. p. 7, 36/37; p. 18, 34/35; p. 95, 35/36; cf. p. 16, 25. bi-la-a-ti 20 fem. pl. to a form biltu, but the ideogram ŠÚ does not favor the translation ‘burden, tax' (from 5a7). This latter word is found in REIS. p. 13, 46: a-mat-su bil-ša ina ki-ša-da šak-na-at = His word is a burden which is placed upon the neck. See also p. 106, 43/44 compared with REIS. p. 112, 29/30.

25 L. 20 has possibly only 4. The corresponding line in VATh 410 is empty.

L. 21/22 = REIS. p. 127, 25 = VATh 410, Obv. 7/8. The last reads e-bu-ru ma-a-tim. For similar lines see the notes on 1. 7/8.

HWB 289b) = SUD SU. In VATh 410 the ideogram is broken off, but both translations are represented. REIS. p. 127, 25 has neither. Elsewhere uțabbi = SU-SU, REIS. P. 10, 159/160; cf. p. 16, 21; SUD: Reis. p. 73, 5,6; SUD-SUD: p. 21, 26/27. In no case stands uttabbi. In K. 2004, Rev. 718 SUD-SU = ți-bi-tum.

35 L. 23/24 = REIS. p. 127, 26 = VATh 410, 9/10. In the last is (dimmer)DU, and so apparently on p. 127. For KU MA(?) VATh has AN-KU. For the same general sense cf. REIS. p. 9, 114/115: ana libbi-ia ma-ka-la-a ip-(pa-r]a-as, and Reis. p. 10, 159/160. u-ša-biš I derive from (o) wa w II, 1 with the meaning 'take away’; cf. HWB 40 6396. Possible is wĐ8 (III, 1) HWB 116. KÚ elsewhere means akâlu

* Sic! Possibly the scribe omitted i.

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