husband's rights, p. 659. —The offended woman may count upon the support of her fellow-sisters, ibid.—The children's affection and regard for their mother gives her power, ibid.—The influence which economic conditions exercise on the position of woman, pp. 659-661.-The status of wives connected with the ideas held about the female sex in general, p. 661.Woman regarded as intellectually and morally vastly inferior to man, especially among nations more advanced in culture, pp. 661-663. —Progress in civilisation has exercised an unfavourable influence on the position of woman by widening the gulf between the sexes, p. 663.— Religion has contributed to her degradation by regarding her as unclean, p. 663 sq. Women excluded from religious worship and sacred functions, pp. 664-666.

- The notion that woman is unclean, however, gives her a secret power over her husband, as women are supposed to be better versed in magic than men, pp. 666-668. -The curses of women greatly feared, p. 668.

Woman as an asylum, p. 668 sq.-In archaic civilisation the status of married women was affected by the fact that the house-father was invested with some part of the power which formerly belonged to the clan, p. 669.-Causes of the decrease of the husband's authority over his wife in modern civilisation, ibid.



Definition of slavery, p. 670 sq.—The distribution of slavery and its causes among

savages, pp. 671-674.–The earliest source of slavery was probably war or conquest, p. 674 sq.-Intra-tribal slavery among savages, p. 675 59.- The master's power over his slave among slave-holding savages, pp. 676-678. – Among the lower races slaves are generally treated kindly, pp. 678-680.Intra-tribal slaves, especially such as are born in the house, generally treated better than extra-tribal or purchased slaves, p. 680 sq.-Slavery among the nations of archaic culture, pp. 681-693. — The attitude of Christianity towards slavery, pp. 693-700.-—The supposed causes of the extinction of slavery in Europe, pp. 697-701.-The chief cause the transformation of slavery into serfdom, p. 701.-Serfdom only a transitory condition leading up to a state of entire liberty, pp. 701-703. —The attitude of the Church towards serfdom, p. 703 sq.-The negro slavery in the colonies of European countries and the Southern States of America, and the legislation relating to it, pp. 704-711.-The support given to it by the clergy, pp. 711-713.— The want of sympathy for, or positive antipathy to, the coloured race, p. 713 sq. – The opinions regarding slavery and the condition of slaves influenced by altruistic considerations, p. 714 sq.—The condition of slaves influenced by the selfish considerations of their masters, p. 715 sq.






The main object of this book will perhaps be best explained by a few words concerning its origin.

Its author was once discussing with some friends the point how far a bad man ought to be treated with kindness. The opinions were divided, and, in spite of much deliberation, unanimity could not be attained. It seemed strange that the disagreement should be so radical, and the question arose, Whence this diversity of opinion ? Is it due to defective knowledge, or has it a merely sentimental origin? And the problem gradually expanded. Why do the moral ideas in general differ so greatly? And, on the other hand, why is there in many cases such a wide agreement ? Nay, why are there any moral ideas

at all ?

Since then many years have passed, spent by the author in trying to find an answer to these questions. The present work is the result of his researches and thoughts.

The first part of it will comprise a study of the moral concepts : right, wrong, duty, justice, virtue, merit, &c. Such a study will be found to require an examination into the moral emotions, their nature and origin, as also into the relations between these emotions and the various



« ͹˹Թõ