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23441-51.-H.saa rictims offered *** 51.35 4.42-1.a view to averting perils areas for the sea bere 452-454-For the purpose of prevending the gas se pare car 2.2, especial y a chief or a king, from sickness, old age, or other ercancances, pp. 454-457.-For the purpose of helping other men into exis ence, p. 457 57.--The killing of the firstborn child, or the first-börn són, p. 458 31.-Explanation of this practice, pp. 459-461, --- Human sacrifices offered in connection with the foundation of buildings, p. 461 sq.—The building-sacrifice, like other kinds of human sacrifice, probably based on the idea of substitution, pp. 462-464. —The belief that groups of people, p. 497 sq.-Duels fought for the purpose of settling disputes between individuals, either by conferring on the victor the right of possessing

the soul of the victim is converted into a protecting demon, p. 464 sq.-The human victim regarded as a messenger, p. 465 sq.-Human sacrifice not an act of wanton cruelty, p. 466.—The king or chief sometimes sacrificed, ibid.

-The victims frequently prisoners of war or other aliens, or slaves, or criminals, pp. 466-468. — The disappearance of human sacrifice, p. 468.Iluman sacrifice condemned, p. 468 sq.-- Practices intended to replace it, P. 469. – Human effigies or animals offered instead of men, p. 469 sq.-Human sacrifices succeeded by practices involving the effusion of human blood without loss of life, p. 470.—Bleeding or mutilation practised for the same purpose as human sacrifice, p. 470 sq. -Why the penal sacrifice of offenders has outlived all other forms of human sacrifice, p. 471.– Human beings sacrificed to the dead in order to serve them as slaves, wives, or companions, pp. 472–474.—This custom dwindling into a survival, p. 475. —The funeral sacrifice of men and animals also seems to involve an intention to vivify the spirits of the deceased with blood, p. 475 sq. ---Manslayers killed in order to satisfy their victims' craving for revenge, p. 476.



The prevalence of the custom of blood-revenge, pp. 477-479.-- Blood-revenge

regarded not only as a right, but as a duty, p. 479 59:- This duty in the first place regarded as a duty to the dead, whose spirit is believed to find no rest after death until the injury has been avenged, p. 481 sq.--Blood-revenge a form of hunan sacrifice, p. 482. -- Blood-revenge also practised on account of the injury inflicted on the survivors, p. 482 sq.-Murder committed within the fanvily or kin left unavenged, p. 483.–The injury inflicted on the relatives of the murdered man suggests not only revenge, but reparation, ibid.—The taking of life for life may itself, in a way, serve as compensation, p. 483 54:Various methods of compensation, p. 484.—The advantages of the practice of composition, p. 484 sq.--Its disadvantages, p. 485. ---The importance of these disadvantages depends on the circumstances in each special case, p. 486 sq.--Among many peoples the rule of revenge strictly followed, and to accept compensation considered disgraceful, p. 487.—The acceptance of compensation does not always mean that the family of the slain altogether renounce their right of revenge, p. 487 sq.-The acceptance of compensation allowed as a justifiable alternative for blood-revenge, or even regarded as the proper method of settling the case, p. 488 sq.—The system of compensation parily due to the pressure of some intervening authority, p. 489 sq.—The adoption of this method for the settling of disputes a sign of weakness, p. 491. - When the central power of jurisdiction is firmly established, the rule of life for life regains its sway, ibid. -A person may forfeit his right to live by other crimes besides homicide, p. 491 sq.- Opposition to and arguments against capital punishment, pp. 492-495.- Modern legislation has undergone a radical change with reference to capital punishment, p. 495.- Arguments against its abolition, p. 495 sq.-The chief motive for retaining it in modern legislation, p. 496.



Duelling resorted to as a means of bringing to an end hostilities between different


the object of the strife, or by gratifying a craving for revenge and wiping off the affront, pp. 498-502.—The circumstances to which these customs are due, P. 503 sq.-The duel as an ordeal or "judgment of God," p. 504 59:- The judicial duel fundamentally derived its efficacy as a means of ascertaining the truth from its connection with an oath, p. 505 sq.-How it came to be regarded as an appeal to the justice of God, p. 506 sq. --The decline and disappearance of the judicial duel, p. 507.—The modern duel of honour, Pp. 507-509. – Its causes, p. 509. ---Arguments adduced in support of it, P: 509 sq.



In the case of bodily injuries the magnitude of the offence, other things being

equal, proportionate to the harm inflicted, pp. 511-513. --The degree of the otience also depends on the station of the parties concerned, and in some cases the infliction of pain held allowable or even a duty, p. 5!3. -Children using violence against their parents, ibid.— Parents' right to inflict corporal punishment on their children, p. 513 sq.-The husband's right to chastise his wife, pp. 514-516.—The master's right to inflict corporal punishment on his slave, p. 516 sq.—The maltreatment of another person's slave regarded as an injury done to the master, rather than to the slave, p. 517.-Slaves severely punished for inflicting bodily injuries on freemen, p.518. -- The penalties or fines for bodily injuries influenced by the class or rank of the parties when both of them are freemen, p. 518 sq.-- Distinction between compatriots and aliens with reference to bodily injuries, p. 519. — The infliction of sufferings on vanquished enemies, p. 519 sq.-The right to bodily integrity intluenced by religious clifferences, p. 520.- Forfeited by the commission of a crime, p. 520 54.Amputation or mutilation of the offending member has particularly been in vogue among peoples of culture, p. 521 sq.- The disappearance of corporal punishment in Europe, p. 522.-Corporal punishment has been by preference a punishment for poor and common people or slaves, p. 522 sq.- The status of a person influencing his right to bodily integrity with reference to judicial torture, p. 523 sq.—Explanation of the moral notions regarding the infliction of bodily injuries, p. 524.—The notions that an act of bodily violence involves a gross insult, and that corporal punishment disgraces the criminal more than any other form of penalty, p. 524 sq.



The mother's duty to rear her children, p. 526.—The husband's and father's duty

to protect and support his family, pp. 526-529.—The parents' duty of taking care of their offspring in the first place based on the sentiment of parental affection, p. 529. — The universality not only of the maternal, but of the paternal, sentiment in mankind, pp. 529-532.- Marital affection among savages, p. 532.-Explanation of the simplest paternal and marital duties, p. 533. Children's duty of supporting their aged parents, pp. 533-538.The duty of assisting brothers and sisters, p. 538.-Of assisting more distant relatives, pp. 538-540.-Uncivilised peoples as a rule described as kind towards members of their own community or tribe, enjoin charity between themselves as a duty, and praise generosity as a virtue, pp. 540-546. --Among many savages the old people, in particular, have a claim to support and assistance, p. 546. —The sick often carefully attended to, pp. 546-548. – Accounts of uncharitable savages, p. 548 sq.-Among semi-civilised and civilised nations charity universally regarded as a duty, and often strenuously enjoined by their religions, pp. 549-556. - In the course of progressing civilisation the obligation of assisting the needy has been extended to wider and wider circles of men, pp. 556-558.—The duty of tending wounded enemies in war, p. 558.- Explanation of the gradual expansion of the duty of charity, P. 559. —This duty in the first place based on the altruistic sentiment, p. 559 59.- Egoistic motives for the doing of good to fellow-creatures, p. 560.- By niggardliness a person may expose himself to supernatural dangers, pp. 560– 562.-Liberality may entail supernatural reward, p. 562 sq.- The curses and blessings of the poor partly account for the fact that charity has come to be regarded as a religious duty, pp. 563-565. — The chief cause of the extraordinary stress which the higher religions put on the duty of charity seems to lie in the connection between almsgiving and sacrifice, the poor becoming the natural heirs of the god, p. 565.- Instances of sacrificial food being left for, or distributed among, the poor, p. 565 sq.- Almsgiving itself regarded as a form of sacrifice, or taking the place of it, pp. 566-569.



Instances of great kindness displayed by savages towards persons of a foreign race,

pp. 570-572.-Hospitality a universal custom among the lower races and among the peoples of culture at the earlier stages of their civilisation, pp. 572-574. -The stranger treated with special marks of honour, and enjoying extraordinary privileges as a guest, pp. 574-576. -Custom may require that hospitality should be shown even to an enemy, p. 576 sq. - To protect a guest looked upon as a most stringent duty, p. 577 sq. -- Hospitality in a remarkable degree associated with religion, pp. 578-580.--The rules of hospitality in the main based on egoistic considerations, p. 581.- The stranger supposed to bring with him good luck or blessings, pp. 581-583.The blessings of a stranger considered exceptionally powerful, p. 583 sq.-The visiting stranger regarded as a potential source of evil, p. 584. – His evil wishes and curses greatly feared, owing partly to his quasi-supernatural character, partly to the close contact in which he comes with the host and his belongings, pp. 584-590.- Precautions taken against the visiting stranger, pp. 590 593. --Why no payment is received from a guest, P: 593 sq.— The duty of hospitality limited by time, p. 594 sq. — The cause of this, p. 595 sq.The decline of hospitality in progressive communities, p. 596.



The right of personal freedom never absolute, p: 597.- Imong some savages

a man's children are in the power of the head of their mother's family or of their maternal uncle, p. 597 sq:-Among the great bulk of existing Savages children are in the power of their father, though he may to some extent have to share his authority with the mother, p. 598 sq. -The extent of the father's power subject to great variations, p. 599. - .Imong some savages the father's authority practically very slight, p. 599 sq. --Other savages by no means deficient in filial piety, p. 600 sq.- The period during which the paternal arıthority lasts, p. 601 sq.--Old age commands respect and gives authority, pp. 603 605. - Superiority of age also gives a certain amount


Among the lower races the wife frequently said to be the property or slave of her

husband, p. 629 sq.-Yet even in such cases custom has not left her entirely

destitute of rights, p. 630 sq.-The so-called absolute authority of husbands

over their wives not to be taken too literally, p. 631 59.- The bride-price

does not eo ipso confer on the husband absolute rights over her, p. 632 sq.

The hardest drudgeries of life often said to be imposed on the women,

p. 633 sq.-In early society each sex has its own pursuits, p. 634. —The rules

according to which the various occupations of life are divided between the

sexes are on the whole in conformity with the indications given by nature,

p. 635 sq.-This division of labour emphasised by custom and superstition,

p. 636 sq.— It is apt to mislead the travelling stranger, p. 637.-It gives the

wife authority within the circle which is exclusively her own, ibid. - Rejection

of the broad statement that the lower races in general hold their women in a

state of almost complete subjection, pp. 638–646. — The opinion that a

people's civilisation may be measured by the position held by the women not

correct, at least so far as the earlier stages of culture are concerned, p. 646 sq.

- The position of woman among the peoples of archaic civilisation,

pp. 647-653. ---Christianity tended to narrow the remarkable liberty granted to

married women under the Roman Empire, p. 653 sq.-Christian orthodoxy

opposed to the doctrine that marriage should be a contract on the footing of

perfect equality between husband and wife, p. 654 sq.-Criticism of the

hypothesis that the social status of women is connected with the system of

tracing descent, p. 655 59.—The authority of a husband who lives with his

wife in the house or community of her father, p. 656 sq.-Wives' subjection

to their husbands in the first place due to the men's instinctive desire to exert

power, and to the natural inferiority of women in such qualities of body and

inind as are essential for personal independence, p. 657.-Elements in the

sexual impulse which lead to domination on the part of the

and to submission on the part of the woman, p. 657 sq.—But if the

man's domination is carried beyond the limits of female love, the woman

feels it as a burden, p. 658 sq.-In extreme case of oppression, at any

rate, the community at large would sympathise with her, and the public

resentment against the oppressor would result in customs or laws limiting the

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