Democratic Deficit?: Institutions and Regulation in the European Union, Switzerland, and the United States

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Swiss Consulting Group, Inc., 2002 - 175 ˹
Is the European Union democratic? Much has been written claiming that the EU's institutions and policymaking processes are insufficiently accountable to, and representative of, the European electorate. In Democratic Deficit?, Thomas D. Zweifel offers a provocative new treatment of the concept of democracy in the EU. The work provides a rigorous, comparative examination of the European Union and the federal democracies of Switzerland and the United States. Drawing upon established, quantifiable scales of democracy, the study demonstrates that the EU's decision-making and regulatory processes do not show a democratic deficit greater than that of the bureaucracies of most liberal democracies and finds that in certain policy areas liberal democracies may even benefit from adopting EU practices. Supported by two case studies comparing regulatory policymaking in action across the three polities, Zweifel's work will prove to be a valuable and thought-provoking addition to the debate about European governance and the increasingly important role of transnational and supranational organizations.
 

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Democratic Deficit Arguments
11
1 Taxonomy of Democratic Deficit Arguments
41
Institutions Compared
45
Alvarez Cheibub Limongi
47
Coppedge and Reinicke 1990
53
Gastil 1990
59
Bureaucratic Democracy
65
Case 1Regulating Mergers
83
5 Bureaucratic Democracy Ratings in Merger Regulation
100
Case 2Regulating Biotech
105
1 Key Actors in Biotech GMO Regulation by Polity
106
3 The United States GMO Foods Labeling Procedure
116
4 The Swiss GMO Foods Labeling Procedure
123
Democratic Surplus?
135
1 Bureaucratic Democracy Ratings Merger and
136
3 Anticipated Criticisms
143

1 Key Actors in Merger Regulation by Polity
84
3 The United States Merger Procedure
92

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˹ xi - If men were angels, no Government would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on Government would be necessary. In framing a Government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this : you must first enable the Government to control the governed ; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.

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Thomas D. Zweifel, Ph.D., is the CEO of Swiss Consulting Group, an international consulting practice headquartered in New York. He teaches at Columbia and New York universities.

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