Social Support Networks: Informal Helping in the Human Services

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James K. Whittaker, James Garbarino
Transaction Publishers, 1983 - 479 ˹

This book offers for the first time a clear conception of what social support networks are, why they are important, how they are identified and sustained, where they fit in an overall framework of human services, and their limits and potential in selected fields of practice. Individual chapters explore: child, adolescent, and family services; daycare and early childhood development; divorced and stepfamilies; schools; delinquency prevention and treatment; mental health; service to the elderly; development disabilities; healthcare and health promotion; and drug treatment. The use of social support networks--extended family, friends, neighbors, and other "informal" helpers--is an idea whose time has come in the human services field. At a time when spiraling costs and popular sentiment weigh against any major expansion of services, it is apparent that a service strategy based primarily on the notion of professional helping delivered on a case-by-case basis, usually in a one-to-one relationship, has serious limitations. Professional response to this major work has been uniformly positive: "[The editors] have assembled a book of considerable importanceÃbrilliant in both scholarship and constructionÃwill appeal to a broad readershipÃ"--Gerald Euster, University of South Carolina. "Ãoffers a much needed balance to the focus on individual and internal dynamics which has characterized social work education for several decades."--Eleanor Reardon Tolson, University of Chicago. "Social Support Networks is a valuable contributionÃa unique, original, and authoritative book...an exciting, timely, and definitely practice-oriented book with a strong theoretical and research base."--Anthony N. Maluccio, University of Connecticut. James K. Whittaker is professor of social work at the University of Washington. A former childcare worker, therapist, and administrator in residential childcare, he has been a consultant to governmental and voluntary children's agencies throughout the United States. James Garbarino is Elizabeth Lee Vincent Professor of Human Development in the College of Human Ecology at Cornell University. He was president of the Erikson Institute for Advanced Study in Child Development, Chicago, Illinois, from 1985 to 1994. He is the co-author of Troubled Youth, Troubled Families, also available from AldineTransaction.

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SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORKS FOR DIVORCED AND STEPFAMILIES
219
Nonpathological Perspective
221
Population Parameters
224
Issues Confronting Transitional Families
225
Adjustment by Adults and Children
229
Strategies for Helping Families in Transition
235
Barriers and Incentives to Using Social Support Networks
239
Sources and Functions of Social Support for Families in Transition
243

Toward a Beginning Integration
43
Some Final Thoughts
60
SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORKS IN MENTAL HEALTH
71
Support Networks and Psychopathology
73
Social Network Interventions
94
Support Networks and the Maintenance of Mental Health
98
Conclusion
106
SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORKS IN HEALTH CARE AND HEALTH PROMOTION
107
Model Projects Using Social Support Networks
110
Guidelines for Practitioners
120
Barriers to Implementing and Using Social Support Networks in Health Care Settings
127
Future Issues for Social Support Networks in Health Care and Health Promotion
128
Addresses of Formal Social Support Networks
130
SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORKS IN SERVICES TO THE ELDERLY
133
Demographic and Social Trends
134
Theoretical Perspectives on Social Networks in Old Age
136
The Role of Informal Social Supports
138
Practice Problems Potentially Amenable to Social Support Networks
141
Existing Projects to Strengthen or Create Social Supports of the Elderly
148
Barriers to Implementation
157
Incentives to Implementing Social Support Networks with the Elderly
158
Working with the Social Support Networks of the Elderly
159
Future Directions
160
Conclusion
163
SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORKS IN CHILD WELFARE
167
Some Current Concerns for Child Welfare
169
An Idea Whose Time Has Come
173
Application of Social Support Networks in Child Welfare
180
Some Practical Suggestions for Incorporating Social Support Networks in Child Welfare
186
SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORKS IN DAY CARE AND EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT
189
Child Care Options
190
Who Are The Providers?
195
Issues in the Provision of Child Care
196
Programs
204
Barriers to the Development of Child Care Support Networks
211
Identifying and Strengthening Child Care Support Networks
214
Future Goals for Day Care
215
Future Directions for Practice and Research
245
SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORKS AND THE SCHOOLS
251
The Client Population
253
Existing and Needed Programs
265
Drawing Them Together
278
Where Do We Go From Here?
289
Sources of Additional Information
294
SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORKS IN SERVICES FOR ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR FAMILIES
299
Social Supports for FamilyAdolescent Problems
307
Preventive and Clinical Use of Social Supports
321
Impediments to Clinical Applications of Social Supports
330
SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORKS IN DELINQUENCY PREVENTION AND TREATMENT
333
Social Support for Families
335
Social Support for Youths in the Community
341
Strengthening Links Between Home and School
348
Implementation Issues
350
Conclusion
352
SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORKS IN TREATING DRUB ABUSE
355
Empirical Evidence and Theoretical Perspectives
357
The Study of Treated Street Drug Abusers
363
Implications of the Evidence for Developing Supportive Networks
366
Models for Social Support Development
368
Roles for Practitioners
375
Conclusion
379
SOCIAL SUPPORT NETWORKS IN DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES
383
Scope
384
Diagnosis and Labeling
386
Social Networks
387
Barriers to Social Support Networks
395
Designing Social Networks
398
Implementation
399
Conclusion
403
Afterword
405
Bibliography
409
Author Index
457
Subject Index
474
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˹ 23 - The other people are interested in him in a personalized way. They speak his language. They tell him what is expected of him and guide him in what to do. They watch what he does and they judge his performance.
˹ 10 - But he who is unable to live in society, or who has no need because he is sufficient for himself, must be either a beast or a god: he is no part of a state.
˹ 23 - ... continuing social aggregates that provide individuals with opportunities for feedback about themselves and for validations for their expectations about others, which may offset deficiencies in in these communications within the larger community context.
˹ 167 - What the best and wisest parent wants for his own child, that must the community want for all of its children. Any other ideal for our schools is narrow and unlovely ; acted upon, it destroys our democracy.
˹ 15 - The cognitive maps we carry around in our heads are the reality we live by and act upon.
˹ 34 - One of the most striking facts with regard to the conscious life of any human being is that it is interwoven with the lives of others. It is in each man's social relations that his mental history is mainly written, and it is in his social relations likewise that the causes of the disorders that threaten his happiness and his effectiveness and the means for securing his recovery are to be mainly sought."7 This concept of the social nature of the self is elaborated fully in Chapter XIX entitled "Underlying...
˹ 175 - Perhaps the most striking finding of the study is that none of the measurements of within-Bellefaire performance at discharge, either in casework or in cottage and school roles, were useful in themselves in predicting postdischarge adaptability and adaptation. Only when the situation to which the child returned was taken into account were performances at Bellefaire related to postdischarge adequacies. In a stressful community situation, strengths nurtured within the institution tended to break down,...
˹ 10 - The process through which the growing person acquires a more extended, differentiated, and valid conception of the ecological environment, and becomes motivated and able to engage in activities that reveal the properties of, sustain, or restructure that environment at levels of similar or greater complexity in form or content
˹ 82 - ... the ability to interact with others in a given social context in specific ways that are socially acceptable or valued and, at the same time, personally beneficial, mutually beneficial, or beneficial primarily to others

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