the next (only)? My great grand-children will be indebted to me for these shady walks. Well, then! do you forbid a wise man being at some trouble for the pleasures of others ? Even this is an advantage which I enjoy to day. I may enjoy it to-morrow, and a few days more. I may even witness more than one dawn of day on your graves. The old man was right. One of the three young men was drowned in the very harbour on going to America ; the second, serving the state in military employments, in order to rise to high dignitics, had his life cut off by an unforeseen stroke; the third fell from a tree which he himself wanted to grast. The old man wept over their tomb, and engraved opon its marble what I have just related.

Le Vieillard, m. the old man; pronounce (viel-yar.) All the French words in ard are m. and the d is not heard.

les trois jeunes hommes : the plural of jeune homme, when it means young people in general, is les jeunes gens; but here the poët speaks of three individuals who are young.

Un Octogénaire, m. a man of eighty. See page 5, No. I. plantoit, imp. of the r. a. 1. planter, to plant, to fix ; but with the adv. , it means, to leave a person bluntly, to let him stand waiting without taking any more notice of him : il m'a tellement ennuyé que je l'ai planté , he tired me to such a degree that I left him bluntly. une plante, f. a plant; la plante du pied, the sole of the foot. Hence, upon the question, quelle est sur la terre la plante la plus utile à l'homme ? the reply might be, la plante des pieds.

Passe encor de bâtir, pass still for building ; to build might pass; to build would be excusable. Here, passer signifies to be allowable, to be passable. Passe pour cela, this may

do. (See passer, page 21, No. II. and page 68, No. V.) Ifs you have attended to our recommendation, and noted our observations down on loose sheets in alphabetical order, you will begin to perceive that you will thus gradually obtain the different significations of the same word, with the additional advantage of seeing them actually thus employed by some author.

batir, r, a. 2. to build, to erect. With tailors, to baste, to make long stitches; fig. bátir en l'air, to indulge vain hopes.

trois jouvenceaux, three young men; but un jouvenceau, m. now means a handsome youth, and is only employed jocosely.

assurément, adv. most certainly. radoter, r. n. 1. to be in dotage, to talk nonsense. car, conj. for; au nom des dieux, in the name of the gods, for the gods' sake. Au nom de, sometimes means literally, in the name of, in the room of; j'agis au nom de mon frère : but frequently in consideration of, for the sake of; je vous en prie au nom de notre amitié, I request you to do it for the sake of our friendship, out of friendship for me. Nom, s. m. name, noun, is pronounced exactly like non, no, and n'ont, have not. Un homme sans nom, a man of low birth; Ces objets ont ils plusieurs noms? non, ils n'ont qu'un nom. C'est son nom de baptême, it is his christian name. Quel fruit, what fruit, what advantage, what benefit. Fruit is m. like all the words in uit, except la nuit, f. the night. Observe the difference between les fruits de la terre, the productions, produce of the earth, and les fruits d'une terre, the revenue derived from a landed estate. de ce labeur, of this labour. This word is rather reserved for poëtry: in common life, the French say, travail. Terres en labeur, ploughed lands.

pouvez-vous recueillir .? Can you gather? recueillir, (conj. like the irr. cueillir, to cull,) to gather, to collect; but se recueillir, ref. to meditate devoutly on sacred matters.

Autant qu'un patriarche, as much as a patriarch ; il vous faudroit vieillir, it would require you to grow old. This is a poëtical inversion; in prose it would be, il vous faudroit vieillir autant qu'un patriarche. Remember what we observed about the impers. v. il faut, page 87, No. VI. and page 101, No. VII. Here it is in the conditional tense, with the verb in the infinitive : you may say, il vous faut travailler davantage, or, il faut que vous travailliez davantage, you must work more. However, in this case the latter is the best expression, because it individualises the idea more, or brings it more home to the individual, with the conjunction que, than with the infinitive. This is more used to express general ideas. N faut manger pour vivre, et non pas vivre pour manger. But you would say: il faut que vous mangiez de ce pain, il n'y en a pas d'autre.

. Il faut que, denotes, besides, that the thing which is to be done is in the power of the agent : you could not say, il faut que vous vieillissies, but you must say, si vous vivez longtems, il vous faudra vieillir comme les autres hommes, if you live long, it will be necessary for you

to grow old like other men. A quoi bon? of what use (is it)? Remember, that“ is it," in this question, is never expressed in French either before a substantive or before an infinitive. à quoi bon une fenêtre quand il n'y a rien à voir 2 of what use is a window when there is nothing to be seen ? à quoi lon ouvrir la fenêtre ? of what use is it to open the window?

charger votre vie, to burthen your life. Charger, page 51, No. VI. la vie, f. life, livelihood, subsistence, energy, way of living ; eau de vie, brandy; faire la vie, to be merry. The words in ie may be considered as being all f. Out of 709, there are only 7 m. and among these, génie, m. genius, is the most necessary to be remembered, on account of its frequent recurrence.

des soins d'un avenir, with cares for a future time. Le soin, m. as all the words in oin, care, attention. In the pl. diligence. Observe, that when the English expression, “take care,” means “ beware,” it is in French, prenez garde ; but when it means “pay attention, be mindful, be attentive,” it is in French, ayez soin. Thus you would say, prenez garde de laisser la porte ouverte, mais ayez soin d'ouvrir la fenêtre, take care you do not leave the door open, but take care to open the window. L'avenir, m. like all the words in ir, the future; à l'avenir, adv. for the future; à venir, what is to


qui n'est pas fait pour vous, which is not made for you, which you are not likely to see. Faire, irr. a. to do, to make; que faites vous .? what are you doing there ? je fais un habit, I am making a coat. See page 37 and 42, No. III. Observe the difference between il ne fait que, and il ne fait que de. Il ne fait que jouer, he does nothing but play ; il ne fait que de jouer, he has just been playing; il ne fait que sortir, he does nothing but walk out; il ne fait que de sortir, he is but just gone out.

ne songez dèsormais qu'à vos erreurs passées, henceforth think only of your past errors. Songer. r. a. and n. to dream,


but when construed with the dative, to think of, to consider. Songez à ce que vous faites, think of what you are doing. Il songe au marriage, he thinks of taking a wife. Ne que, see page 56, No. IV. désormais, adv. henceforth, bereafter. Passées, part. past, f. pl. past, faded, gone by. You will now understand Voltaire's witticism : when making room for some ladies who were not young, he called out to them, passes, beautés passées! as if he had intended to say ; passez, beautés, passez!

Quittez le long espoir, quit, renounce long hope, don't indulge hopes of a longer life. Espoir, m. hope, is a poëtical expression; in common life we use the word espérance, f. All the words in oir are m.

ne convient qu'à nous, becomes us, is suitable to us only. convenir, (conj. like venir,) to become, to suit, to agree.

tout établissement, every establishment, settlement, human undertaking. Les parques, f. the parcæ, or fates. Blême, adj. pale. Se jouer de, ref. to sport with, to laugh at; jouer r. a. 1. to play, to gamble, to game, to sport, to act as an actor, to ridiculize, to render ridiculous.“ Un jour que Molière avoit annoncé le Tartuffe (the Hypocrite) sur l'affiche, (in the play-bill,) et qu'un certain premier Président du Parlement en défendit (forbade) la représentation, il s'avança sur la scène (on the stage,) et dit: Nous comptions vous donner ce soir, (we reckoned upon performing to-night,) le Tartuffe ; mais monsieur le premier Président du Parlement ne veut pas qu'on le joue;" which might mean, will not allow it to be performed, or will not allow bimself to be rendered ridiculous. In speaking of a play, you may say either quelle pièce donne-t-on, or quelle pièce joue-t-on ce soir, or simply que donne-t-on ce soir.2 Be careful not to confound jouer, r. n. 2, which is three lines lower down, with jouer, r. a. 1. The former is to enjoy, and is always construed with the genitive, as here, qui de nous doit jouir le dernier des clartés de la voute azurée .? which of us is to be the last to enjoy the light of heaven? This is the construction in prose.

Observe also, that in speaking of playing on a musical instrument, jouer requires the genitive, jouer du violon, jouer du piano,

jouer de la flute, but in speaking of playing at any game, it requires the dative, jouer aux cartes, jouer au whist, jouer à la paume. également, adv. equally, alike. Le terme, m. the term, bere the time for which our life is to last ; expression, end, limit; but it never denotes the English “ term,” when it means condition, or price. Tell me your terms,” is in French, dites moi vos conditions ; or if it be any thing that is paid for, votre prix ; and “ they are not on good terms, they are not on a friendly footing,” is, ils ne sont pas bien ensemble; ils sont brouillés.

Est il aucun moment is there any moment? The French do not require the verb “ to do” in their interrogations, they simply place the pronoun after the verb. Entendez vous ? do you

hear ? But in the third person the noun is always named first. “ Is my father at home?” mon père est-il à la maison? “ Has my motber been in the garden ?ma mere a-t-elle été au jardin ? Does your brother hear what I am saying ? votre frere entend-il ce que je dis .2” Except with the verb impers. y-a-t-il, or est-il (which is more poëtica), wbich is generally construed without an article, or with the article indefinite or partitive ; y-a-t-il du vin dans la cave.? y-a-t-il des pommes au dessert.? est-il bel homme ?

mes arrière neveux, my great grand-children ; un neveu, m. a nephew; in the plural, nos neveux, posterity, our descendants. All the words in eu are m.

me devront, will owe to me. Devoir, r. a. 3. to owe.

autrui, s. m. others, other people in general. N'oubliez jamais cette belle maxime du Christianisme : ne faites point à autrui ce que vous ne voudriez pas qu'on vous fit.

gouter, r. a. 1. to taste, to take an afternoon's luncheon ; to delight in, to enjoy. Demain, adv. to-morrow. It is also a sub. jusqu'à présent aucun humain n'a pu voir arriver demain. You have the whole of to-morrow to consider of it, vous avez tout demain pour y songer, l'aurore, f. the dawn or break of day; the goddess Aurora. There are 12 words in ore m. and 7 f.

Le vieillard eut raison, the old man was right. See page 14, No. II. Se noya, was drowned; se noyer, r. v. to be

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