drowned ; noyer, r. a. 1. to drown. (Some pronounce -, but noa-is more correct.) un noyer, m. a walnut tree ; un coup, m. a blow, a push, stroke, wound, action, trick; a move at chess or draughts, a throw at dice, time, a deed, an effect, a lucky or unlucky turn at any game. The p. is heard only before a vowel, see page 54, No. IV. Here it means a blow, a stroke. un coup impréou, an unforeseen stroke; vit, pret. of the irr. a. and n. voir, to see. ses jours, his days, here means his life; de nos jours, adv. in our days.

emporté, part. p. of r. a. 1. emporter, to carry off, to take away any thing that is to be carried away.

enter, r. a. 1. to graft.

et pleurés du vieillard, and regretted by the old man. This is a very bold ellipsis for the French language; the pleurés has no nominative to which it refers, though it is evident that it refers to the three young men. It is a singular instance of obscurity in a language that generally is so very tame and clear. Racine is equally obscure, when he says:

Et voyant de mon bras voler partout l'effroi,

L'Inde sembla m'ouvrir un champ digne de moi. The participle voyant may apply to l'Inde, though the connexion shews that it refers to the individual who is speaking. The French call these expressions phrases absolues. The nominative, les jeunes hommes, is concealed in the leur marbre, their marble, meaning the marble of the tomb of the young men.

Ce que je viens de raconter, what I come from relating, what I have just related. The French have two expressions to denote wbat has just been done, and what is intended to be done directly. The former, je viens de, with an infinitive; je viens d'écrire, I have just written; the latter je rais, also with an infinitive, but without any particle or preposition; je vais écrire, I am going to write directly. Both seem particularly adapted to French vivacity.

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We now turn to the German, and select for the vehicle of our remarks a short piece written by Mr. Frederick Heyne, a private teacher at Berlin. It is entitled Hope,


Ueber allem Fleisch auf Erden
Herrscht ein hoher, weiser Wille.
Unsers Geistes morsche Hülle
Musz zu Staub und Arche werden,
Und die Bande müssen brechen
Die Natur ums Herz uns wand.
Gläubig, auch an Grabe's Rand
Musz Ergebung Amen sprechen.

Doch es ist des Herzens Recht
Ewig ungekränkt geblieben.
Schwer reiszt sich von seinen Lieben
Los das menschliche Geschlecht.
Und der Schmerz ringt wild die Hände
Und die helle Thräne sinkt.
Ach, des Lebens Freuden winkt
Viel zu früh des Lebens Ende !

Aber will der Muth dir sipken,
Blicke zu der Wolke Saum;
Lasz dein Herz, wie süssen Traum
Morgenroth der Hoffnung trinken.
Droben dort am Himmelszelt
Strahlt der Hoffnung goldne Pforte
Mit der Inschrift Trostesworte:
“ Wiedersehn in besz'rer Welt!"


Over all flesh on earth rules a supreme wise power. The fragile shell of our mind must turn to dust and ashes ; and those strings must break which nature wound round the heart. Firm in faith, even at the brink of the grave, resignation must say, Amen! Still the rights of the heart remain unimpaired. Man tears himself with difficulty from those he loves. Grief wildly wrings the hands, and the bright tear trickles down. Alas! the end of life beckons much too soon the joys of life away. But if your courage is ready to fail, look up to the skirts of the cloud; let your heart quaff the dawn of hope like a sweet dream. Yonder above, on the canopy of Heaven, beams the golden gate of Hope, with the comfort-bearing inscription: “ We meet again in a better world !”

Die Hoffnung, f. hope, a verbal noun derived from hoffen, r. a. to hope. See page 74, No. V.

Ueber, prep.over. The dotted ü, beginning a sentence, is . always printed ue, but retains of course the sound of the French u.


the dative or accusative, according as there is locomotion or not. In the sense of an obstacle that prevents something being done, it may be indifferently construed with either case. We may say, über das Lesen vergiszt er Essen und Trinken, or über dem Lesen vergiszt er Essen und Trinken, for the sake of reading, he neglects eating and drinking. But in the sense of “over," the distinction ought to be strictly attended to. In St. Matthew, chap. iii. 16, “ The heavens were opened unto him," is correctly, in Luther's translation, der Himmel that sich auf über ihm, because the beavens were opened over him, but without moving down upon him. When über denotes a superiority, a preference, in such expressions as Zufriedenheit geht über den Reichthum (contentement surpasse richesse) to be contented is better than to be wealthy, it gov. the accus.

You will understand the following pun, in which geht über is first taken figuratively for “surpasses, is superior," and then lite- . rally for “ goes over it, bas access to it.”

“ Nichts geht über den Wein,

Sagt mein Kellner ; (my butler) allein
Er geht über den Wein."

Ueber serves to form many compound verbs, both separable and inseparable. The latter is the case whenever über implies a comparison of superiority, or is the English “upon,” (super) and "over, beyond," (trans.) The verbs to which über is inseparably joined gov, the acc, in reference to the prep. In separable compound verbs, über denotes the English “ over," in the sense of above the object. Das Wasser kocht über, the water boils over, above the vessel in which it is boiling. As an ady. über is over. es est schon über, it is over already; über und über, all over.

allem Fleisch, all flesh. Das Fleisch, es, n. flesh, meat.

ein hoher, weiser Wille, high, wise will ; a supreme, wise power; der Wille, ens, m. the will. The gender is marked in the adj. on account of cin, which does not show the gen

der. Hoch, adj. high, makes with the articles, der hohe, and ein hoher, rejecting the c, just as it does in the comp. höher, page 21, No. VI.

der Geist, es, pl. er, m. spirit, ghost, mind, vivacity, genius; morsch, adj. frail, fragile, crumbling to dust. Die Hülle, page 44, No. III. ; but in the familiar expression, die hülle und fülle, it means that the integument, shell, or husk, is not only large, but also well filled, and consequently denotes abundance, plenty. The Germans are fond of chiming expressions : we bave, knall und fall, toll und voll, schalten und walten, &c. der Staub, es, m. dust; but sich aus dem Staube machen is to hasten away, to run away, to escape.

das Band, es, n. the tie, the ribband, the string. It has two plurals, die Bande, figuratively, ties, bonds, fetters, and die Bänder, ribbons, strings. See worte, page 29, No. II. and Lande, page 89, No. VI.; bat der Band, es, pl. bände, m. the binding of a book, a volume. Haben sie den ersten Band gelesen have you read the first volume ? Das Werk hat drei Bände, or besteht aus drei Bänden, the work is in three volumes. brechen, page 107, No. VII. Ums Herz, a contraction for um das Herz, round the beart; we had, um-su, page 27, No. II. Um is here the prep. about, roundabout. Thus Wieland says,

“ Wie lieblich um meinen entfesselten Busen Der holde Wabnsion spielt ! Wer schlang das magische Band Um meine Stirne?”

“ How sweet delusion plays lovely round my unfettered bosom! who bound the magic string round my forehead ?And Bürger :

6. Wenn um die Zeit der Rosen
Zur Mitternacht mein Gang ums Dörfchen geht.”

When about the season of the roses my walk leads me at midnight round the bamlet.”

wand, from winden, page 108, No. VII.
gläubig, adj. faithful, firm in faith; when construed in the

m. with the article ein, it is exactly the same with ein Gläubiger, s. m. a creditor ; but as all our substantives are spelt with a capital letter, the two expressions can never be mistaken one for the other. Ein gläubiger Christ, a faithful christian, a firm believer; er ist ein Gläubiger meines Bruders, he is my brother's creditor. das Grab, es, pl. die Gräber, n. the grave, the tomb. Do not confound it with der Graben, ens, m. the ditch. der Rand, es, pl. Ränder, (in some parts of Germany incorrectly Rände) m. the edge, brink, border, margin. See page 89, No. VI. The German familiar expression, das versteht sich am Rande, signifies, that is well understood, that requires no comment in the margin. Ergebung, f. resignation, the action of surrendering in war, and fig. surrendering one's will to that of another. Again, a verbal, noun from the refl. irr. sich ergeben, to surrender. das Recht, es, pl. e, right, law, justice. The Germans say, like the French, Recht haben, (avoir raison) to be right; Unrecht haben (avoir tort) to be wrong; einem Recht geben, to acknowledge that a person is right, to agree witb him. Die natürlichen Rechte des Menschen, the rights of man; die Rechte, law, jurisprudence; Mein Vetter widmet sich den Rechten, my cousin studies the law, dedicates himself to the profession of the law. The adv. is recht, very; and the adj. recht, right, and also the opposite of left. die rechte Hand, the right hand.

ungekränkt, adj. unimpaired, unvexed, from Kränken, r. a. to vex, part. p. gekränkt, of which we make this adj. with the addition of the negative un, page 109, No. VII. geblieben, part. past of the irr. n. bleiben, to remain, to continue, (ich bleibe, ich bleib, ich bin geblieben.) Warum sind Sie zu Hause geblieben.? why did you stay at home? To remain, as a complimentary expression at the end of a letter, is always verbleiben, the particle ver having here a strengthening power, which gives more intensity to the expression. Ich verbleibe Ihr gehorsamer Diener, I remain your obedient servant.

Schwer reiszt sich von seinen Lieben los, with difficulty tears itself (mankind) from its darlings. Schwer, adj. and adv. heavy, difficult, heavily, with difficulty; reiszt los, from the separ.

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