ter, the accusative is like the nominative; the inversion, therefore, must be clear from the connexion, and the inflections of both the substantives and adjectives generally suffice to point out the true construction. There is no article partitive: we speak without any article whenever the Eng lish some is expressed or understood, and after nouns implying weight, measure, place, or quantity. We translate the Latin, “ministrantem platanum potantibus umbram," by

“Fröhlichen Trinkern erquickenden Schatten bietende Bäume,” exactly like the English, “ trees offering refreshing shade to jovial topers ;" whilst the French would be obliged to say, “ des arbres qui offrent aux buveurs exaltés la fraîcheur de leur ombrage ;” twelve words instead of seven in English, and six in German ! The article is also omitted as in English after “whose," dessen, derer, deren. “ The man whose daughter lives in our village," der Mann dessen Tochter in unserem Dorfe wohnt. And moral ideas may be generalized without the article : “Gentleness has more power than violence,” Sanftmuth richtet mehr aus als Gewalt. The article is further omitted before several nouns substantive crowded together. Voss imitates Milton word for word, when, in the second book of his Paradise Lost, the latter has :

So eagerly the fiend
O’er bog or steep, thro' strait, rough, dense, or rare,
With head, hands, wings, or feet, pursues his way,
And swims, or wades, or creeps, or flies,” &c.


The German poet says:

" Wie doch ein Sterblicher
Durch Moor und Jähn, durch Flach, Rauh, Dicht und Dünn
Mit Haupt, Hand, Schwing'und Fuss den Weg verfolgt;
Bald schwimt, bald sinkt, bald watet, kreucht und fliegt."

938.-2. With respect to Genders, the difficulty for the English student is increased by the circumstance that besides the masculine and feminine we have also a neuter gender. The number of regular terminations in German, according to the Reverend Mr. Fischer's classification, does not exceed 330, and we have pointed out several of those which may assist in discovering the gender; but we earnestly recommend the joining of the proper article definite, der, die, or das, to any German noun substantive that is treasured up in the memory; the article indefinite ein serving both for the masc. and neut. is insufficient for that purpose.

939.-3. We have already remarked on the assistance which some German terminations afford towards the import of nouns substantive.

940.–4. The Declensions themselves must be carefully learnt upon Dr. Noehden's plan first, and then upon

the plan of the German grammarians, as stated in the Nature and Genius of the German Language, page 34.

941.-5. With regard to Adjectives, that the German adjective is indeclinable like the English, whenever it is used in reference to a noun substantive mentioned before or after, of which it is the attribute or predicate, sec. 38. We say, like the English, mein Vater ist gut; meine Mutter ist gut; meine Brüder sind gut ; meine Schwestern sind gut ; and also with the neuter, mein Pferd ist gut ; meine Pferde sind gut. But when the adj. is an epithet, with the article definite, you add an e to it in the nominative, and en in all other cases, except those that are always the same with the nom. viz. the accus. sing. fem. and neut. sec. 10; and you do the same with the article indefinite, only marking the gender in the nom. masc. and neut. by the letter r and s. Der gute Vater, ein guter Vater; das gute Pferd, ein gutes Pferd, sec. 16. When a noun substantive joined to an adjective is employed without any article, the adj. takes the terminations of the article itself, sec. 38.

942.-6. The principal terminations of German adjectives which influence their meaning, are, (1.) bar, sec.

336. (2.) ig, denoting the presence of the object expressed by the noun substantive of which the adj. is formed, haarig, hairy; freudig, joyful; begierig, desirous ; lustig, merry, &c. sec. 877. (3.) lich, sec. 786. (4.) isch, denoting also the presence of the quality of the object expressed by the noun substantive of which the adj. is formed, as himlisch, celestial ; höllisch, infernal; irdisch, terrestrial, &c. (5.) haft, denoting likewise the possession of, or great similiarity with the object expressed by the substantive, as fehlerhaft, faulty; meisterhaft, masterly; herzhaft, courageous ; zweifelhaft, doubtful; lasterhaft, vicious; tigerhaft, tigerlike; löwenhaft, lion-like; taubenhaft, dove-like, &c. (6.) voll, which corresponds with the English ful, denotes

the presence of the object mentioned by the substantive, as, wundervoll, wonderful; geistvoll, spirited; chrenvoll, honourable ; sorgenvoll, sorrowful; schmerzvoll, painful. (7.) reich, as it were rich in, which denotes an ample provision of what the substantive imports, as menschenreich, populous; tugendreich, very virtuous; geistreich, witty, &c. (8.) sam, sec. 477. (9.) icht, which points at a similarity or conformity, as holzicht, woody; öhlicht, oily; salzicht, saltish; erdicht, earthy—bere the first syllable erd must be pronounced very long, to distinguish the word from erdicht, (pron. the first syllable very short,) invented, imagined, fictitious; to express this conformity with the subst. we also use, (10.) artig, and we say, hol. zartig, öhlartig, salzartig, erdartig. (11.) en and ern, which points out the materials or stuff of which a thing is made, as ehern, sec. 725; hölzern, made of wood; elfenbeinern, made of ivory; wollen, made of wool or worsted; seiden, made of silk; ledern, made of leather ; leinen, made of linen, &c. (12.) los, sec. 907. (13.) leer, which denotes that the object mentioned by the noun substantive is wanting ; wonneleer, cheerless; freudenleer, joyless; menschenleer, unpeopled; gedankenleer, jejune, wanting thought, &c. (14.) arm, which also denotes deficiency; baumarm, deficient in trees; wortarm, deficient in words; fiscaarm, deficient in fish; menschenarm, deficient in population, &c. (15.) frei, which denotes freedom or exemption from the thing denoted by the substantive, as fehlerfrei, faultless ; siindenfrei, free from sin; lasterfrei, free from vice; zollfrei, toll-free, exempt from paying the toll; schuldenfrei, without debts; schuldfrei, guiltless, &c.

943.—7. The German adjectives may be converted into substantives, denoting individuals, sec. 139; or a species, sec. 393 ; or the abstract quality of the adj. sec. 583 and 757.

944.-8. Adjectives, which in general are identical with adverbs, may be used adverbially even when epithets, sec. 813; and they must be placed at a distance from the noun substantive, though epithets, sec. 827.

945.-9. The Participle Active in German may be used as an adj. and is subject to the same rules ; ein liebender


Vater, eine liebende Mutter, ein liebendes Kind; der liebende Vater; die liebende Mutter, das liebende Kind; only they cannot be predicates or attributes. We cannot say der Vater ist liebend, &c. But the participle active may be converted into a substantive, der sterbende, the dying

The participle passive follows the same rules, ein geliebter Vater, eine geliebte Mutter, ein geliebtes Kind; der gelieble Vater, die geliebte Mutter, das geliebte Kind; and it may be converted into a substantive, der gekränkte, the distressed man. It

may also form a predicate with the verb to be: der Vater ist geliebt, the father is beloved; which differs from the passive der Vater wird geliebt, the father is loved, in which case there is always an agent understood; whilst ist geliebt expresses in general the state in which the father actually is, that of being beloved. The participle passive is used instead of the imperative, sec. 567. We say zugeritten! ride on! aufgethan! open! Wohl aufgemerkt! pay attention !

Voss translates Horace's Carm. Lib. II. Od. 9:

" Potius nova
Cantemus Augusti trophæa
Cæsaris et rigidum Niphaten
Medumque fiumen gentibus additum
Victis, minores volvere vortices;"


“ Lieber getönt mit uns
Die neuen Siegestrofän Augustus
Cæsars ! getönt, wie erstart Nifates
Und Mederströmung dienstbarem Völkerschwarm
Gesellet, jetzo kleinere Wirbel dreht!"

946.-10. With regard to the Pronouns Personal, the difficulty of their agreement with the noun to which they refer is increased by the addition of the neuter gender. Thus, in speaking of a hat, der Hut, masc.; of a cap, die Haube, fem.; and of a gown, das Kleid, neut. you say indifferently in English, “I bought it to day ;" whilst this it is expressed in German by ihn, sie, and es, because the three words, hat, cap, and gown, happen to be each of a different gender. Ich habe ihn heule gekauft, I bought him, viz. the hat, masc. ; ich habe sie heute gekauft, I bought her, viz. the cap, fem. ; ich habe es heute gekauft, I bought it, viz. the gown, neut. Here again it is of the utmost importance to be well acquainted with the genders of German nouns. The neuter es is frequently a mere expletive pronoun, sections 104, 164, 450, and 541. The second difficulty for the English student in the use of the German personal pronouns, arises from the circumstance that we speak in polite conversation in the third, and not in the second person plural. We say, wie befinden sie sich ? how find they themselves ? instead of, how do you find yourself ? how do you do? I give you this book, is, in German, I give them this book : Ich gebe Ihnen dieses Buch. To speak in the third person singular or second person, in German, is extremely offensive, though we must use the latter when addressing a multitude, a congregation. The second person singular is a mark of intimacy and affection, and is used only between parents and children, brothers and sisters, and very intimate friends who have agreed to thou each other. The German du is extremely

ordial and affectionate, but it is never employed towards a stranger, as it denotes strict intimacy. We


of two intimate friends, sie sind du und du mit einander. The witch in Goethe's Faustus brings to Faustus a magic draught, intended to renovate him, to recal his youth ; this draught, however, is no sooner placed to his lips than it turns to fire, on which occasion Mephistophiles (the evil genius) says :

Nur frisch hinunter! immer zu !
Es wird dir gleich das Herz erfreuen.
Bist mit dem Teufel du und du

Und willst dich vor der Flamme scheuen ? which Mr. George Soane translates :

Down with it,
Down with it quickly; quaff, friend, quaff;
'Twill make the heart within thee laugb :
Art thou the Devil's friend, yet fear

To share the Devil's fiery cheer ? 947. The Spanish prince, Don Carlos, in Schiller's tragedy of that name, says to his friend :

Und jetzt noch eine Bitte : nenne mich du.
Ich habe deinesgleichen stets beneidet
Um dieses Vorrecht der Vertraulichkeit.
Dieses brüderliche du betrügt mein Olir
Mit süssen Abadungen von Gleichheit.


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